During World War II (1939-1945), the Bataan Death March was the forcible transfer (march) by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60,000–80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war. The march began on 9 April 1942, after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines. The total distance marched was between 60 and 70 miles. Exact casualty figures are unknown. Estimates range from 5,650 to 18,000 deaths. The march was characterized by severe physical abuse and wanton killings, and was later judged by an Allied military commission to be a Japanese war crime.